Updated: Jun 30, 2020
Hematological Cancer is a type of cancer that occurs in blood cells, which are the fastest growing cell in the human body.
Leukemia is a type of hematological cancer that occurs from uncontrollable growth and division of blood cells in the blood or bone marrow. It is a type of proliferative blood tumor. In Leukemia, large number of white blood cells that are not mature (or abnormal) decrease the number of normal, functioning white blood cells. This result in decreased immune functions, inability to perform basic function of blood such as oxygen transport and eventually lead to disease.
Leukocyte is Divided into Myeloid and Lymphocyte
Bone marrow accounts for 50 to 60% of all white blood cells and is responsible for innate immunity.
Lymphocyte accounts for the other 35 to 45% and is responsible for adaptive immunity.
The lymphatic system is a network of tissues and organs spread inside human body like a spider web, and is responsible for filtering and removing pathogens.
The lymphatic vessel is a pathway for lymphocytes and it also serve as a pathway for malignant tumors from a specific part of the body to metastasize.
In Leukemia, immature white blood cells multiply abnormally and exist in large quantities in the blood. Compared to the proliferation of such immature white blood cells, the growth of normal white blood cells decrease dramatically. So, they are unable to perform the basic blood functions such as oxygen transport and supply of nutrition.
Abnormal white blood cells may also cause reaction similar to autoimmune disease and destroy the normal tissues.
Leukemia can be classified as fatal (acute) leukemia and
progressive (chronic) leukemia.
The most common leukemia in adults are:
Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)
Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML)
and Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) occur occasionally.
In children, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) is most common
and Chronic Myeloid Leukemia(CML) also frequently occurs.
For treatment of Leukemia chemotherapy, targeted immunotherapy, and heamtopoietic stem cell transplantation are the main methods used.
With the recent development of various targeted therapy and immunotherapy, importance of genetic testing has also been receiving more emphasis.
In the diagnosis of leukemia, physical examination and medical history are checked on the basic level,and blood test or bone marrow tests are conducted. Immunophenotyping (flow cytometry etc.), cytogenetic testing, molecular biology tests are performed using blood or bone marrow.
To confirm diagnosis, bone marrow test is performed to check whether leukemia cells are proliferated in the bone marrow. Other special staining and genetic tests are performed to check the type of leukemia. Cytochemical tests, flow cytometry and chromosomal testing are important to understand the characteristics of leukemia cells.
Recently, there have been several publications on how the application of NGS can be useful in genetic diagnosis of hematological cancers.
Utility of NGS Panel Testing in Myeloid Diseases
Several molecular alterations associated with diagnosis, prognosis and targeted therapy of myeloid diseases have been reported.
Utility of NGS Panel Testing in lymphoid diseases
Several genes have been identified as a novel biomarker in lymphoid diseases, but the number of molecular alterations showing clinical utility is limited.
For certain genes there may be limitations with using NGS technology.
FLT3-ITD (Internal Tandem Duplication)
High GC Contents e.g. CEBPA
Minimal Residual Disease(MRD) Monitoring
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Acute Myeloid leukemia, Myeloproliferative neoplasms, Malignant Lymphoma, Multiple Myeloma
[Bone Marrow and/or Whole Blood]
For acute myeloid leukemia, malignant lymphoma and multiple myeloma, tissue samples are also accepted for NGS Panel testing.
Download the required documents through the link below!
This test can be performed upon request from a medical doctor.
#Hematological Cancer#NGS Panel Test#Acute Myeloid Leukemia#AML#Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia#ALL#MDS#MPN#Lymphoma#MM